- Weather and climate data (see preparation below)
- Graph paper, pencils, rulers (or graphing software like Excel)
- Find high and low temperature data over the past 10 days or month at The Weather Channel, Weather Underground, or your local news source.
- Find your local climate data.
- There are many ways to find climate averages for your region. You can get in touch with your state climatologist or local news forecasters. You can search for climate data at the NOAA Climate Data Center or Weather Underground.
- One of the simplest ways to find your local climate data (as of July 2013) is via The Weather Channel. Follow the directions below to access climate data. (The steps are outlined in the graphic.)
- Search your zip code or city and state.
- Click “Monthly” on left.
- Click “Averages” below the month calendar to see a summary of your regional climate.
- To get a table of data instead of monthly averages, choose the table tab above the graph.
- To see daily averages for a particular month, choose “daily averages” from the drop down menu (top left).
Introduction and motivation
Ask students about the day’s weather. Prompt them to describe aspects such as temperature, precipitation, cloud cover, and wind. Ask students, is today’s weather normal? Is it what you’d expect?
Tell students that in this activity they will explore how weather and climate are similar and different by exploring weather and climate temperature data over the past week or 10 days. They will compare daily temperature with averaged climate data.
Have students list what they know about weather and climate. Explain that weather is the current atmospheric conditions, including temperature, rainfall, wind, and humidity. Climate is the usual weather conditions based on 30 years of averaged weather data for a location. Climate is what you expect. Weather is what actually happens.
Students create graphs of (1) high and low temperature climate averages over a month and (2) high and low temperature weather data over the past month or 10 days. Prompt students to put temperature on the Y-axis and time on the X-axis. Help students to consider what range of temperature would work well on the axis before they start graphing data.
Use of evidence to critique claims
Have students refer to their graphed data and discuss the following questions.
- Which is more variable: this week’s high and low temperatures or the climate averaged high and low temperatures? Why?
- Is the weather temperature data warmer, cooler, or about the same as the average?
- If you were asked to predict the temperature for tomorrow, which data would you find the most useful: the previous day’s temperature or the average temperature for that day?
Give students the following scenario, have them write a paragraph about answer to the questions, and then discuss as a group.
Aaron and Gracie are on their way to school on an April morning. Once they get on the city bus, Aaron peals off his jacket.
“I’m hot,” he says.
“I thought it was supposed to be cool today like it was yesterday,” says Gracie as she unwinds her scarf. It was cool the day before, but now the temperature is climbing. It’s going to be warm.
“It’s hot today because of global warming,” says an elderly woman sitting in the row in front of them. She turns to look at Aaron and Gracie and shakes her head back and forth with gloom.
“No it’s not,” says a man across the aisle angrily. “It’s just the weather, not the climate.”
“Climate and weather are the same,” says a woman in a business suit who is on her way to work.
“No it’s not,” calls the bus driver over his shoulder.
Aaron and Gracie look at each other with confusion. They didn’t mean to start an argument. If you were on the bus with these people, how would you respond?
- If yesterday was cool and today is warm, could that be due to global warming?
- Are weather and climate the same or different? How would you respond to the people on the bus?
- How would you figure out what weather is normal for that time of year and that location?
- Can you think of a way that we can use weather data to figure out how climate is changing?
- Use this activity before an exploration of global climate change. To get started, have students look for local climate change projections on Weather Underground.
- Do this exercise in cooperation with another school in a different geographic location comparing weather data to emphasize regional climate differences.
- Participate in the GLOBE Program in which students around the world collect and share data about the environment.